Russia and China share a discontent with the United States-dominated unipolar world and want to establish a multipolar international system. They are concerned about the West’s attempt to expand NATO eastward and its security ring around China. Russia has an identity crisis vis-à-vis the West and is sceptical about a partnership with the West. Russia needs to modernise its defence forces to meet the security needs of post-Soviet Russia, and must lessen external threats. Russia sees China as a crucial pillar of the post-Cold War Eurasian security framework. Moscow believes that China’s interest in military cooperation with Russia will support the growth of stable bilateral relations. China’s leaders are worried that Iran, Afghanistan, or the Central Asian republics may try to infiltrate western China with “Islamic” militancy. Russian diplomats maintain that the Russo-Chinese partnership is not targeted against any country.